We observe that
Statistics and
Probability are the basic need of every one’s life, and we observe that our life revolves around the study of
Probability and
Statistics. Let’s start with basic of statistics. We say that the study in statistics is basically the science which deals with the collection, analysis, presentation and interpretation of the raw
Data which is collected by different source. While we talk about the term
Data, we mean numerical facts alone constitute the data and certain qualitative characteristics like poverty, smartness, intelligence cannot become the part of the data used for the statistical study. We also say that while we talk about the data used for the statistics, we must remember that data cannot be a single observation. We always talk about the data in the aggregate form of the facts collected for the particular purpose. We must remember that the data if collected for any particular purpose of the study of the statistics, we say that it may not b suited for another purpose.
Besides this, statistics have its own limitations:
1. Study of statistics always deals in groups and does not deal as any individual reading.
2. We cannot use the data for the analytical study of the data for the qualitative study like honesty, sincerity, poverty etc.
3. The facts collected by the study of statistics are not true for the individual reading, but holds true for the average study of the readings.
There can be different types of data used for statistical study like: Primary Data, Secondary Data. We can say that the original form of data collected for the statistical study is called Raw Data.
Now we talk about Probability:
In our day to day life, we come across certain situations, where we give some statements like:
a) It may rain today
b) I doubt if you could clear the exam this time.
c) Certainly the price of LPG will rise next week.
d) There are chances that Chirag may top the exams this time.
The words “ may “ , “ probably “, “ doubt “, “ chances “ shows the uncertainty or the probability of the event to occur.
In earlier time, the concept of probability was started with the game of gambling, but now-a-days, we use the study of probability in sciences, commerce, weather forecasting, biological sciences and many other fields like census study. We use the study of statistics extensively in different fields of our life. Some of the common terms used in probability study are:
Experiment: it means any operation which can perform some well defined outcomes, is called an experiment. Each outcome of the experiment conducted is called an event.
Trial: By a trial we mean to perform any random experiment on the given experiment.
Random experiment: Any experiment in which all possible outcomes are known and the exact outcomes cannot be predicted in advance is called a random experiment